Jokes apart! When your teacher says you have to use the APA format for your papers, you should take this requirement seriously. APA citing can be easy if you use these clear examples and quick answers to frequently asked questions.
APA Referencing: Layout and In-Text Quotations
Every page and every sentence of your paper should comply with the requirements of APA style. Start your acquaintance with APA citing by learning the page layout:
- Font: Times New Roman 12.
- Margins: 1 inch (2.54 cm) on all sides.
- Double spacing, no extra lines between paragraphs.
- Page numbers: simple Arabic numerals in the upper right corner (1, 2, 3…).
- Header: left-aligned. On the title page, it should look like this: Running head: SHORT TITLE. On all the other pages it should look like this: SHORT TITLE. You should not include the words “Running head” on any other page except the title page. This is why you should use the option of special format for your title page.
The next step is to use proper format for all your in-text quotations:
If you use a direct quote shorter than 40 words:
“Stress relating to the workplace has been a special focus of role stress research for sociologists.” (Aldwin, 2007, p. 72)
If you use a direct quote that is 40 words or more:
Stressors may involve workload, speed of work, dangerous or toxic working conditions, poorly designed environments, interpersonal discord with supervisors, employees, colleagues, or clientele, discrimination based on ethnicity or sex, and additional frustrations related to the social organization of the workplace (Aldwin, 2007, p. 72)
It is called a block quote. This kind of citation starts on a new line. The entire quote is indented (5 spaces before the beginning of every line) and no quotation marks are needed.
If you use a paraphrase and cite the entire book:
Aldwin (2007) stated that workplace stress is one of the central issues in sociological research.
No page number is needed, because this idea could be repeated several times on different pages.
If you use a paraphrase and cite a concrete page:
The main factors contributing to workplace stress include working conditions and environments, interpersonal relations with management, colleagues and clients and the social organization of the company (Aldwin, 2007, p. 72).
If you paraphrase, try to use different wording and sentence structures to avoid plagiarism. A bad paraphrase is plagiarism too.
APA Citing: Reference List
Another important requirement of the APA citation style is to use a specific format for the Reference List. Different types of sources require different formatting. These are examples of APA citations for the most widely used types of sources:
Aldwin, C. (2007). Stress, coping and development: An integrative perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.
An article in a periodical:
Shen, Y. (2009). Relationships between self-efficacy, social support and stress coping strategies in Chinese primary and secondary school teachers. Stress and Health, 25(2), 129 – 138.
The American Red Cross (2012). Volunteer.
Retrieved from http://www.redcross.org/portal/site/en/menuitem.d8aaecf214c576bf971e4cfe43181aa0/?vgnextoid=7bf51a53f1c37110VgnVCM1000003481a10aRCRD&vgnextfmt=default
Selznick, D. (Producer), Fleming, V. (Director). (1939). Gone with the wind. [Motion picture].
United States: Selznick International Pictures.
- Start your Reference List on a new page.
- Place all entries alphabetically.
- Use double spacing, page numbers, and a header just like in the rest of your paper.
- Use indentation for the second and every following line of every entry.
- Feel free to use an ampersand (&) instead of the word “and” before the name of the last author.
- If you have up to 7 authors, you will need to list all of them.
- If you have more than 7 authors, you should write the names of the first three of them, followed by three dots (…) and finally by the name of the last author.
Now you know all the niceties of APA referencing and have pretty good chances to receive the highest grades for the format of your papers. Feel free to visit this and other pages of this blog whenever you may need help with academic writing. For example, other visitors liked our informative speech topics. You are welcome to visit this list to pick up a fresh topic for you.